Q65584: Mismatched DEFtypes in Main and SUBs Can Zero SHARED Variables
Article: Q65584 Product(s): See article Version(s): 1.00 1.01 1.02 2.00 2.01 3.00 4.00 4.00b 4.50 Operating System(s): MS-DOS Keyword(s): ENDUSER | SR# S900823-150 B_BASICCOM | mspl13_basic Last Modified: 20-SEP-1990 If DEFtype statements (DEFINT, DEFLNG, DEFSNG, DEFDBL, DEFSTR, or DEFCUR) make passed variables differ in type between a calling routine and the SUB or FUNCTION procedure that the calling routine invokes, then a "Parameter Type Mismatch" error displays in QB.EXE or QBX.EXE. However, if the DEFtype usage makes SHARED or COMMON SHARED variables differ in type between procedures, then those variables will be unexpectedly 0 (zero) or null at run time. Programmers must be very careful to use DEFtype statements consistently between procedures that use SHARED or COMMON SHARED statements because the compiler or environment cannot catch this case of type mismatch. This information applies to Microsoft QuickBASIC versions 1.00, 1.01, 1.02, 2.00, 2.01, 3.00, 4.00, 4.00b and 4.50 for MS-DOS; to Microsoft BASIC Compiler versions 6.00 and 6.00b for MS-DOS and MS OS/2; and to Microsoft Professional Development System (PDS) versions 7.00 and 7.10 for MS-DOS and MS OS/2. (Note: The CURRENCY data type, declared with DEFCUR or the "@" suffix, is only available in BASIC PDS versions 7.00 and 7.10. Also, LONG integers, declared with DEFLNG or the suffix "&", are not supported in QuickBASIC 1.x, 2.x, or 3.00.) For more information, query in this Knowledge Base on the following words: DEFTYPE AND SHARED AND SUB The types of variables that are passed (INTEGER, LONG integer, SINGLE precision, DOUBLE precision, STRING, or CURRENCY) must match between the CALL statement (or FUNCTION procedure invocation) and the formal parameter list in the SUB (or FUNCTION) statement. Undeclared local variables are allowed in SUBprograms and FUNCTIONs, and they are considered to be different from variables declared in the main level of code with the same name. Undeclared nonshared, nonpassed variables are initialized to a value of zero (for numerics) or null (for strings). For any SUB or FUNCTION procedure that administers the DEFtype statement exactly as in the main level of code, the expected values of SHARED variables will pass correctly to that procedure. However, if DEFtype affects the SHARED or COMMON SHARED variables in the SUB or FUNCTION code differently than in the main code, the values of SHARED or COMMON SHARED variables in the offending SUB or FUNCTION will be initialized to zero or null. The BC.EXE compiler or QB.EXE/QBX.EXE environment cannot trap this kind of type mismatch for COMMON SHARED variables, because variables of different types are allowed to use the same name. The linker cannot trap this type mismatch because BASIC's variables are not public symbols, and thus are not known to the linker by name. Since neither the environment, the compiler, nor the linker can trap the type mismatches for SHARED or COMMON SHARED variables, you must exercise care to use DEFtype statements consistently; otherwise, variables may be unexpectedly zero or null. Code Example ------------ The code example below illustrates improper use of DEFtype statements, which inconsistently affects the type of the variable TRUE1 in COMMON SHARED. TRUE1 is SINGLE precision and correctly passed in COMMON SHARED in the main level, FUN2, and SUB2, but is a local INTEGER variable and not passed through COMMON SHARED in FUN1 and SUB1. If you type the program below into QB.EXE or QBX.EXE line by line in source code order, you will need to change the automatic DEFtype in each procedure's window to the DEFINT or DEFSNG statements shown. This is because in QB.EXE or QBX.EXE, a procedure automatically inherits the DEFtype statement of the window in which the SUB or FUNCTION statement was first typed. This code can be loaded as is into QB.EXE/QBX.EXE to show the type mismatch problem, but note that the QB.EXE/QBX.EXE environment will redisplay the DEFtype statements according to the following rules: By default, the QB.EXE/QBX.EXE environment makes the DEFSNG statements invisible, since SINGLE precision is the default data type. Also, if a letter range is not covered by a DEFtype statement visible in a procedure's window in QB.EXE/QBX.EXE, then you can assume DEFSNG applies to variables with first letters in that range. Also, the current DEFtype assignments are determined in source code order. The DEFtype for a given range of first letters is carried to all subsequent code until changed by any subsequent DEFtype statement, and the QB.EXE/QBX.EXE environment displays this effect by automatically displaying the correct DEFtype statements in each procedure window (remember DEFSNG is invisible). Editors other than QB.EXE/QBX.EXE do not change the display of DEFtype; thus, you can only figure out the DEFtype for a given range of first letters by looking at all DEFtype statements in source code order and remember where they are changed by any subsequent DEFtype statement(s). (See comments in code below for an example.) (Note that the QB.EXE editor in QuickBASIC versions 2.x and 3.00 does not change the visibility of any DEFtype statements -- what you see is what you get, in source code order. QuickBASIC 1.x does not come with an editor. Also, you need to remove the DECLARE statements and FUNCTION ... END FUNCTION blocks in the program below to demonstrate the type mismatch problem in QuickBASIC 1.x, 2.x, or 3.00.) DECLARE FUNCTION fun1% () DECLARE FUNCTION fun2% () DECLARE SUB sub1 () DECLARE SUB sub2 () DEFINT D-O ' Note that variables beginning with D through O are now integer. The ' variable TRUE1 is not covered by this, thus TRUE1 is a SINGLE ' precision variable in COMMON SHARED. COMMON SHARED TRUE1 COMMON SHARED false CLS false = 0 TRUE1 = NOT false ' TRUE1 is assigned a value of -1 (or nonzero) ' since the NOT operator applied to 0 equals -1. PRINT "TRUE1 = "; TRUE1 PRINT "Function #1 returns: TRUE1 = "; fun1% PRINT "Function #2 returns: TRUE1 = "; fun2% CALL sub1 CALL sub2 SLEEP 2 DEFINT A-C, P-Z ' If this source is loaded into QB.EXE/QBX.EXE, this displays ' DEFINT A-Z, since DEFINT D-O is still in affect from further above; ' and putting DEFINT A-C, D-O, and P-Z together makes DEFINT A-Z. ' Thus the variable TRUE1 is now a local integer variable and ' is not in COMMON SHARED. FUNCTION fun1% d = TRUE1 fun1% = d END FUNCTION DEFSNG A-C, P-Z ' If loaded into QB.EXE/QBX.EXE, this displays DEFINT D-O, since ' the DEFSNG is automatically made invisible, and D-O are still ' defined as integer from further above. TRUE1 is a SINGLE ' precision variable in COMMON SHARED. FUNCTION fun2% d = TRUE1 fun2% = d END FUNCTION DEFINT A-C, P-Z ' If this source is loaded into QB.EXE/QBX.EXE, this displays ' DEFINT A-Z, since DEFINT D-O is still in affect from further above; ' and putting DEFINT A-C, D-O, and P-Z together makes DEFINT A-Z. ' Thus the variable TRUE1 is now a local integer variable and ' is not in COMMON SHARED. SUB sub1 PRINT "In sub #1, TRUE1 = "; TRUE1 END SUB DEFSNG A-C, P-Z ' If loaded into QB.EXE/QBX.EXE, this displays DEFINT D-O, since ' the DEFSNG is automatically made invisible, and D-O are still ' defined as integer from further above. TRUE1 is a SINGLE ' precision variable in COMMON SHARED. SUB sub2 PRINT "In sub #2, TRUE1 = "; TRUE1 END SUB Sample Output ------------- TRUE1 is a SINGLE precision variable equal to -1 and correctly passed in COMMON SHARED in the main level, FUN2, and SUB2, but is a local INTEGER variable equal to zero (0) and not passed through COMMON SHARED in FUN1 and SUB1: TRUE1 = -1 Function #1 returns: TRUE1 = 0 Function #2 returns: TRUE1 = -1 In sub #1, TRUE1 = 0 In sub #2, TRUE1 = -1
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