# KnowledgeBase Archive

## Q41154: Towers of Hanoi: QuickBASIC 4.50 Recursive SUBprogram Example

``````Article: Q41154
Product(s): See article
Version(s): 4.00 4.00b 4.50
Operating System(s): MS-DOS
Keyword(s): ENDUSER | B_BasicCom SR# S890210-54 | mspl13_basic

The Towers of Hanoi is a classic computer problem that has been used
to demonstrate the usefulness and ease of use of recursion. The
following example program shows how this problem can be solved with
recursion in QuickBASIC Versions 4.00, 4.00b, and 4.50 for MS-DOS,
Microsoft BASIC Compiler Versions 6.00 or 6.00b for MS-DOS and MS
OS/2, or  Microsoft BASIC PDS Version 7.00 for MS-DOS and MS OS/2.
QuickBASIC versions earlier than Version 4.00 do not support
recursion.

The information below demonstrates the Towers of Hanoi problem.

If you have three towers (labeled A, B, and C, respectively) of equal
height, and you have "n" number of disks on Tower A, move the "n"
disks from Tower A to Tower C in the shortest number of moves.

1. A larger disk cannot be placed on top of a smaller disk.

2. Only one disk can be moved at a time.

3. For each move, a disk must have one of the towers as a destination.

You will find through inductive proof that the shortest number of
moves required will be 2 raised to the n-1 power. The order of this
algorithm (best case) is O(2^n).

You will also notice that the only thing being kept track of on the
three towers is what is on top of each tower. The recursion of the
program handles the pushing and popping of the stack. Some
implementations of the Towers of Hanoi use a stack to keep track of
what is on each tower.

The following is a code example:

DEFINT A-Z
DECLARE SUB HANOI(DISKS,TOWERA(),TOWERB(),TOWERC())
CLEAR ,, 4096
DIM TOWERA(2)
DIM TOWERB(2)
DIM TOWERC(2)
PRINT
PRINT"                   RECURSIVE TOWERS OF HANOI"
DO
INPUT "NUMBER OF DISKS? ", DISKS
PRINT
IF DISKS<>0 THEN
TOWERA(0)=1
TOWERB(0)=2
TOWERC(0)=3
PRINT
CALL HANOI(DISKS,TOWERA(),TOWERB(),TOWERC())
END IF
LOOP UNTIL DISKS=0
END

FUNCTION WHICHTOWER\$(TOWER%)
SELECT CASE TOWER%
CASE 1: WHICHTOWER\$=" A "
CASE 2: WHICHTOWER\$=" B "
CASE 3: WHICHTOWER\$=" C "
END SELECT
END FUNCTION

SUB HANOI (DISKS,TOWERA(),TOWERB(),TOWERC())
IF DISKS=1 THEN
DESTINATION\$=WHICHTOWER\$(BYVAL TOWERC(0))
SOURCE\$=WHICHTOWER\$(BYVAL TOWERA(0))
PRINT "MOVED DISK FROM"; SOURCE\$;"TO";DESTINATION\$
ELSE
CALL HANOI(DISKS-1,TOWERA(),TOWERC(),TOWERB())
DESTINATION\$=WHICHTOWER\$(BYVAL TOWERC(0))
SOURCE\$=WHICHTOWER\$(BYVAL TOWERA(0))
PRINT "MOVED DISK FROM"; SOURCE\$;"TO";DESTINATION\$
CALL HANOI(DISKS-1,TOWERB(),TOWERA(),TOWERC())
END IF
END SUB
``````

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